Promoting prosocial pupil behaviour and the roles of counselling Antisocial behaviour of pupils isgetting more and more attention in many countries.Information is given about relevant definitions andthe prevalence o...
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Promoting prosocial pupil behaviour and the roles of counselling TON MOOIJ University of Nijmegen, Institute for Applied Social Sciences (ITS), the Netherlands Abstract. Antisocial behaviour of pupils is getting more and more attention in many countries. Information is given about relevant definitions and the prevalence of antisocial behaviour of pupils in the Netherlands. Policy strategies and actions to reduce antisocial behaviour at the national level, regional or municipal level, school and class level, and individual or pupil level are focussed. Research to explain antisocial behaviour and to promote prosocial behaviour provides clues to a more systematic prosocial approach, which is formulated in five guidelines towards optimum education. Practice experiences in developing optimum education since the beginning in kindergarten also suggest roles of counselling. Keywords: school violence, antisocial behaviour, pupils, roles of counselling, education Many activities or programmes to reduce pupil violence have been developed over the course of time (cf. Alschuler, 1980; Bayh, 1975; U.S. Department of Health, Education and Welfare, 1973). Attention has also been given to the roles of counsellors (Howard & Jenkins, 1970). Yet the violence problems do not seem to diminish. Within a pedagogical approach, we have to deal with them in a preventive and cautious way. Do we really use all possibilities to help all pupils to develop positively from the beginning in school onwards? And, secondly, if not, how could we develop education and counselling in order to make this happen? In this article I will provide answers to these two questions. First, I will define and describe different forms of violent or antisocial behaviour of pupils. The description uses results from quantitative research in the Netherlands. Policy actions at different levels of the Dutch educational system, including counselling, will be treated. Quantitative and qualitative research reveals that educational system aspects are also related to the social behaviour. Therefore, five guidelines to improve education are formulated. Relevant research experiences in developing educational practice teaches that the proposed approach to promote prosocial behaviour needs collaboration between educational practice, researchers, parents, and outside-school instances, from the beginning in kindergarten throughout elementary and secondary education. Counsellors can play important roles in supporting this systematic approach, in particular from the point of view of the counselling profession in the 21st Century (Bemak & Hanna, 1998). 316 Prosocial and antisocial pupil behaviour Definitions Prosocial or cooperative behaviour exists where the relationships between individuals, groups or social systems are largely characterised by shared or complementary aims or means and where the parties behave as ‘partners’ (Deutsch, 1993; Merton, 1968). For example: the teacher provides information to initiate learning processes of the pupils; each individual pupil then concentrates on the relevant tasks and works on these, adds to them, et cetera. Teasing occurs where an individual or group explores the limits of a relationship in a playful manner, jokingly challenging the other party, or picking on some feature in a creative and constructive way. Teasing is not in itself an undesirable phenomenon in relation to children’s development (Farrington, 1993). Antisocial or power-seeking behaviour, like bullying, sexual harassment, violence and criminal behaviour involve the use of one or more forms of aggressive behaviour (e.g., psychological, physical, sexual, criminal, or directed at property). There are disparities between the aims or means of the parties concerned. Imbalances of power (cf. Mulder, 1977; Olweus, 1987) between bully and victim, or between aggressor and object of aggression, are exploited to achieve the aims of the bully or aggressor against the will of the victim. Bullying happens repeatedly and over time, which does not need to be the case with violent behaviour. Baumann (1992) brings forward that violence relates to the outward behaviour of individuals or social systems towards individuals, social systems or property. It is physically, psychologically or socially damaging or destructive to the object of the violence (the victim) and frequently also to the perpetrator of the violent behaviour. According to Baumann, the use of violence implies breaking the will of the victim which is deliberate and ‘conscious’, although this does not mean that perpetrators are always fully aware of the consequences of their actions. The older the perpetrators of violence are, the more responsible they are for their actions. In Baumann’s conception, violence has a ‘purpose’ in the mind of the individual or social system perpetrating it, although this does not mean that the end justifies the means. Finally, criminal behaviour relates primarily to forms of violence which are unlawful and subject to judicial sanctions (Hirschi, 1969). Prevalence of antisocial behaviour of Dutch pupils Some information will be given about results from representative research in the Netherlands. Mooij (1992a) reports on a nationwide random survey within primary and secondary education. At the pupil level, bullying was 317 Table 1. Victims and bullies: percentages of pupils at primary and secondary school. Alternative answers Victims Primary Not this academic year 1–2 times this year Regularly Approximately once a week Several times a week 39% 38% 15% 4% 4% Secondary Bullies Primary Secondary 71% 23% 4% 0% 2% 30% 50% 14% 3% 3% 44% 40% 11% 2% 3% Source: Mooij, 1992a operationalised using the self-assessment questionnaire devised by Olweus (1987). To validate the pupils’ self-assessment, data were collected about perceptions of classmates’ social behaviour (sociometric data). The pupils were surveyed in April–May 1991. Table 1 (cf. Mooij, 1992a) shows for each possible answer and in each type of school (primary, secondary) the percentages of pupils who indicated that they were victims of bullying (question 7) or themselves bullied others (question 26). Traditionally, these percentages are used to indicate bullying in Olweus’ questionnaire. It can be seen that bullying occurs more often in primary than in secondary education, but with respect to the alternatives indicating the highest frequency of bullying the differences are smallest. After developing scales checked for reliability, it was shown that the scale scores covaried with other pupil variables and with teacher and teaching variables (cf. also Van Hattum, 1997). Mooij (1994) reports the results of a nationwide random survey of violence by pupils in secondary education. This survey related to pupils in the third and fourth years, in the 15–17 age group. The survey also included items relating to being the victim of unwelcome physical advances by male or female pupils. Pupils were asked whether they had experienced this form of sexual harassment by boys or girls in school in the period between September 1992 and March 1993. The following percentages were found: 22% of the pupils had been the victim of sexual harassment by boys at least once; 14% had been the victim of sexual harassment by girls. With regards to the initiation of sexual harassment of boys or girls, both items scored 8%. The perpetrator item ‘initiating sexual harassment of girls’ occurred as an item on a reliable and valid scale concerning ‘being the perpetrator of premeditated physical violence’. 318 In the same survey, individual pupils were asked whether they had been the victim or perpetrator of bullying or violent behaviour (self-assessment). Checks for alpha-homogeneity produced two victim scales and three perpetrator scales. The percentages of pupils who were victims or perpetrators at least once in the period between September 1992 and March 1993 were as follows: ‘victim of physical violence’, 15%; ‘victim of intentional damage to property or emotional violence’, 43%; ‘perpetrator of disruptive behaviour in school’, 51%; ‘perpetrator of intentional damage to property’, 7%; and ‘perpetrator of premeditated physical violence’, 15%. Furthermore, teachers reported that 8% of pupils were occasionally the victim of bullying or violence by other pupils; 7% of pupils occasionally bullied other pupils or used violence towards them; 18% of pupils exhibited disruptive behaviour in class; and 29% of pupils were under-achievers in school. As a follow-up of this study on pupil violence in secondary schools, the Dutch State Secretary for Education appointed a committee to devise an action programme to combat violence in schools. In June 1995, this programme was published under the title ‘Preventing and combatting violence in schools’. Policy actions against pupil violence at different levels The national policy level Ministry of Education, Culture and Science. Also in June 1995, the Ministry published a brochure on ‘safe schools’ (Ministerie van Onderwijs, Cultuur en Wetenschappen, 1995a, 1995b). At the same time, the Ministry launched a campaign about safety in and around schools. The campaign is coordinated by the Secondary Education Project Management Team (PMVO) and is carried out by education support organisations. The campaign includes, among other things: • for schools: – the development of crisis support for schools; – the development of a simple analytical instrument making it possible to tailor solutions to the specific problem; – the dissemination of information about models and successful examples of approaches; – the development of a step-by-step strategy and the drafting of guidelines for discussion within schools; – the drafting of a range of training and support measures; – the drafting of a health and safety plan in accordance with the legislation including the appointment of confidential counsellors, the 319 establishment of complaints procedures and a four-year policy plan in schools; • for pupils: a symposium and a competition (video, photography, texts, comic strips, posters, music or drama); • for pupils, parents and schools: a national telephone help-line; • for local policies (municipalities, school boards, welfare organisations, social services): agreements (covenant) with cities and large towns including a section on ‘safe schools’; • for national policies: assimilation into integrated policies on young people and on innovation. The instruments developed as part of the Safe Schools campaign are ready for use (PMVO, 1996). Furthermore, on the European level, the Ministry initiated an EC conference about ‘Safer at school’ in Utrecht, the Netherlands, in February 1997. The Ministry of Education, Culture and Science has a longer tradition in emphasising the educational and pedagogical roles of school boards, staff and parents (cf. De Rijcke, 1993). Already in 1992, the Project for the Prevention of Sexual Harassment was given the task of translating government policy into policy and practice within schools. This project has taken a number of steps, including the appointment of a confidential counsellor, the establishment of a complaints committee, the design of a complaints procedure, and the provision of public information. For example, it has produced a self-help package designed to enable primary schools to identify and deal with sexual harassment (Visser, 1996). An extensive overview was compiled with categories: general, reporting, public information, policies, pupil guidance, teaching and course material, teacher training, audio-visual material, posters and theatre performances (MateM, 1996). With respect to both the Safe Schools campaign and the project on Prevention of Sexual Harassment, however, there seem to be no available data on the reliability, validity or effectiveness of these ways of dealing with violent behaviour. Other ministries. On behalf of the Ministry of Health, Welfare and Sport, Schuyt (1995) reported on the background and characteristics of young people at risk and policies concerning them. There was an emphasis on early identification (monitoring) and effective support for such youngsters. In particular, between 1995–1997, the Ministry of the Interior drew up covenants with cities and large towns. One of the key elements of these agreements is an emphasis on tackling the problems of high-risk groups. Humbert (1993) has researched the literature on the effectiveness of public education in the prevention of crime for the Ministry of Justice. 320 Effective, interpersonal, ongoing education and social control (rewards and punishments) turned out to be more effective than media campaigns. In 1994, this Ministry published a report by the Juvenile Delinquency Committee (Ministerie van Justitie, 1994) arguing for early, swift and consistent intervention. Junger-Tas stressed the need for the earliest possible preventive action, particularly in the family (Junger-Tas, 1997). Other national bodies. Some bodies can be mentioned, by way of example. The National Health Education Centre compiles information for regular publication. Already in 1992, the Centre published a package on reducing bullying in schools containing educational material, children’s books, audiovisual material and drama productions, material for parents and background information (Landelijk Centrum GVO, 1992). The Institute for Non-Commercial Advertising (SIRE) combats problems within society by means of propaganda and advertising campaigns. In 1995 and in 1998, this advertising included a campaign against bullying. The confederation of National Parents’ Associations has concentrated since the early nineties mainly on tackling the problem of bullying and violence in schools. The Associations are engaged in various activities, including the development of a computer program for use by pupils in the top three years of primary schools and the first three years of secondary education. This program was launched at the National Education Exhibition in 1997 (Mooij, Mooij, & Smeets, 1997). The National Secondary School Pupils’ Action Committee (LAKS), which is supported by the Ministry of Education and the Secondary Education Process Management Team, concerns itself with developing and promoting the interests and rights of pupils. It has drawn up a checklist for an ‘ideal’ school (see LAKS, undated). Pupils can use this checklist to assess the following features of their own schools: the school buildings and organisation, teachers and lessons, individuals (school board, school head and deputy head, support staff, pupils and parents), personal matters (guidance, bullying), consultation and participation (students council, students charter, organisation of extramural activities, and more general information). The Netherlands Supply Teachers Fund and Staff Health Service has directed its attention, as part of its implementation of policy on working conditions, to studying the levels of aggression, violence and sexual harassment which may be encountered by people working in schools. It has published a manual, a ‘Safe in school’ questionnaire and an accompanying set of explanatory notes including an action plan (Kelder & Van Lemette, 1996). It should be noted, however, that there seem to be no available data on the reliability, validity or effectiveness of any of the above. 321 The regional or municipal level In 1994, the Education Department of the Municipality of The Hague published a report putting forward rules for teachers and school managements concerning the physical and legal aspects of violence (Dienst Onderwijs, 1994). Other cities and large towns have followed suit with similar approaches, sometimes with slightly different emphases (e.g., Activiteitengroep Onderwijs (1998) of the Municipality of Arnhem). At the same time, consultations have been stepped up and there has been cooperation between educational institutions and organisations in the welfare sector, et cetera. Cooperation between schools and the police has produced initiatives such as crime-prevention lessons on themes such as vandalism and rowdiness; theft and receiving stolen goods; abuse and victim support; the police station, police procedures and addiction (Huigen, Oltmans & Cornelissen, 1992). Any crisis situation calls for an immediate response both within the school and from outside agencies (cf. Dienst Onderwijs, 1994). The steps to be taken, in short, are: stop the antisocial behaviour/obtain assistance; provide victim support; and report those responsible to the school management and the police. In practice, a school or outside agency can choose from a wide range of alternative courses of action (see above). Another approach to be mentioned is the ‘five-track approach’ proposed by Van der Meer (1993), which involves the perpetrator of violence, the victim, the bystanders, the teacher(s) and the parents to reduce violent or bullying behaviour. However, there seem to be no available data on the reliability, validity or effectiveness of any of these activities or measures. School and class level prevention Mooij (1994) reports information received from secondary schools that they have appointed confidential counsellors (69%), included clauses in school rules about the way in which pupils should treat each other (55%), and drawn up crime prevention plans (7%). He points out that school boards, management, teachers, other staff, pupils and parents should all be involved in planning the various preventive activities and sharing responsibility for them. Prevention of antisocial behaviour of pupils, if possible by promoting prosocial behaviour, is one of a school’s core tasks. First, an antisocial incident can be exploited for preventive purposes (“tertiary prevention”). For example, by informing pupils, teachers, others within the school, parents, and perhaps the press; by using the event as an opportunity to state that ‘we’ don’t do such things or permit them to happen, and by emphasising how we do treat each other, and why. 322 Explicit identification of the relevant social characteristics of pupils also provides information about the extent to which individual pupils may be ‘at risk’ in one or more areas. High-risk pupils should be given extra support (“secondary prevention”) and, if necessary, counselling from the very start of their school careers. Where necessary, outside bodies can be called in to help with this. Care should be taken, however, to avoid overly naive interventions, since these may in fact have the effect of aggravating the social problems (Komen, 1991). Also, education needs to take account of the differences in level and rates of development amongst pupils (“primary prevention”), while at the same time promoting learning for all. This is also in accordance with the Dutch policy of reintegrating children with special needs into mainstream schools and the policy of developing more active skills and a greater measure of independent study throughout secondary education. The individual or pupil level Some relevant developments directed at the pupil are, for example, expressed in attention for ‘language proficiency’, including special attention for children with non-Dutch backgrounds. A related developmental field refers to ‘general cognitive characteristics’ (language and arithmetic) requiring, for example, greater flexibility in classes containing multilingual pupils (see Van Riessen, 1996). Next, important developmental aspects refer to ‘social and communicative’ and ‘emotional’ capacities: See for example the programme proposed by Steerneman (1994) and the in-depth project on socio-emotional development run by the Department of Developmental Psychology at the University of Nijmegen (Kerkvliet, 1996). The cooperative games of Van den Einden and Pecht (1995) and the ‘life-style for young people’ programme, translated and developed by the Department of Education of the Free University (Amsterdam), are also relevant. There is still a need for development and management of conflict programmes, however (cf. Lim & Deutsch, 1996; Hertroys & Kersten, 1985). Moreover, changes in the social, emotional and cognitive approaches to play or learn within the curriculum can be developed, field-tested in their effects on pupils, and evaluated in kindergarten or primary and secondary schools (cf. Mooij, Selten & Smeets, 1998; Olweus, 1991). These research based approaches are discussed in the next sections. 323 Research on the promotion of a pupil’s social development Variables in the explanation of social behaviour Different categories of variables may influence the formation of social behaviour. First, innate or basic features of personality will be relevant from conception onwards, e.g., biological, emotional or social characteristics (see Frijda, 1994; Goleman, 1995; Moffitt, 1993). Second, environmental characteristics at various levels will play a role, like processes of early upbringing (Goleman, 1995; Langeland & Dijkstra, 1992), social processes or group dynamics (Cillessen, 1991), influences of friends (Ferwerda, 1993; Van der Ploeg, 1993), educational characteristics such as features of the curriculum, teaching methods, methods of assessment, pedagogical approach and organisational features of the year group system in particular (Alschuler, 1980; Ames, 1984; Slavin, 1997), characteristics of the neighbourhood in which the school is situated (Collier, 1994), and characteristics of society at large: emphasis on power and performance, glorification of masculinity (macho behaviour), sensationalism (violence in the media: see Willemse, 1994), urbanisation accompanied by increasing impoverishment (Collier, 1994). Third, to the first two categories of variables, processes of interaction between these variables can be added. Increasing disaffection in respect of both home and school, or of socially desirable values and norms, and increasingly antisocial behaviour, are conceived as a longitudinal interaction between personality characteristics, on the one hand, and features of the environment at different analytical levels (e.g., pupil, class, school and neighbourhood), on the other. Examples based on the survey of 1994 are given in the multilevel analyses of Mooij (1998). Here it is seen, for example, that being a boy, being more extravert, being more disagreeable, coming across fewer teachers with positive teaching behaviour, and attending a lower type of secondary school, help explain why someone is a perpetrator as such. The fact that someone is a perpetrator of disruptive behaviour in school and of premeditated physical violence is furthermore explained by being more unconscientious, seeing more teachers as being strict, and coming across more teachers with discipline problems. The multilevel analyses also reveal that ‘environmental’ class variables and their interactions with pupil level variables are important. The relevant class variables are: form teacher’s mean of the assessment of pupils who are the victim of bullying and violence; being in a class where, during lessons, more whole-class instruction is given; and being in a class where, according to the form teacher, one uses more severe punishment to deal with pupils’ aggressive behaviour. These last results provide statistical evidence that class or school characteristics are related to a pupil’s social behaviour. So a pupil’s social 324 behaviour could be influenced positively by providing ‘prosocial’ educational conditions to promote the pupil’s social behaviour over the course of time. Quantitative intervention research in secondary education To investigate how changing educational conditions affects prosocial behavioural changes of a pupil, interventions were carried out in four experimental secondary schools known to have pupils scoring high on aggressive behaviour, whereas three comparable schools served as control schools (Mooij et al., 1998). In both types of schools, pretests were held in 1995 with pupils in the first grade (aged about 12) and teachers in grades 1 till 4; posttests were held in 1997 with pupils in grades 1 and 3 and teachers in grades 1 till 4. The intervention in the experimental schools aimed at the development of prosocial school level and classroom level processes, in particular at sharing the responsibility between pupils and teachers for the formulation and control of social rules and the introduction of differentiating didactic changes. To realise the intervention, the researchers cooperated with teachers and staff within each of the four schools to develop a positive social-pedagogical and cognitively more stimulating environment for pupils and teachers. Qualitative and quantitative information was used to check the implementation validity of the intervention (o.c.). The main effects of the intervention on the development of a pupil’s social behaviour at school, outside school, and criminal behaviour, were rather clear. First, after controlling for the pretest and a covariable in school year 1, intervention effects were found with the prediction of being a perpetrator of aggressive behaviour at school, outside school, and criminal behaviour, in year 3. Fewer or hardly any intervention effects were found with victim variables. Second, personal continuity of social behaviour scores in the first year was more important than either covariable effects or intervention effects. This finding underlines the primacy of social ‘personal’ variables in relation to environmental variables or influences (cf. Goleman, 1995). However, it also makes clear that preventing antisocial behaviour, or promoting prosocial behaviour, is not easy to do and should begin as early as possible in a child’s life (cf. Walker, Kavanagh, Stiller, Golly, Severson & Feil, 1998). Third, home variables such as talking with parents about leisure time and school in year 1, and positive school experiences in year 1, had a prosocial effect, whereas degree of problematic behaviour of friends in year 1 had an antisocial effect on the development of a pupil’s social behaviour. It was also found that, at the intervention schools, the prediction at the pretest was generally higher than at the control schools, whereas the mean effect was lower (Mooij et al., 1998). This outcome led to the interpretation 325 that the pupils scoring highest on antisocial behaviour at the pretest should receive more personal attention on top of the group attention they received in the intervention. Here, counselling could, or should, play a role. Social die-hards seem to need both group and personal support to behave more prosocially, from the beginning in school onwards. A systematic approach to this problem in schools seems lacking until now, but is badly needed in school practice. Finally, from a longitudinal point of view, parents and peers did play a role in influencing a pupil’s social behaviour (o.c.). They should therefore be included systematically from the very moment a pupil starts school. Qualitative observation in kindergarten practice To further clarify the relevant processes in kindergarten, participant observation was carried out in three Dutch kindergartens. The observation was done by event sampling: Attention was concentrated on natural processes and effects assumed to be important given the focus on social and cognitive characteristics of conspicuous pupils. Notes were made of relevant events and circumstances. If necessary, personal or situational characteristics, or educational or didactic procedures, were clarified in short explanatory interviews with the teacher. Furthermore, written and oral information from parents and teacher could be added to the event observation in class. Detailed examples of cases of children being at risk from different points of view, including their coaching and the changes required in the play and learning situations, are given in Mooij (1999a, 1999b). In summary, the cases show, first of all, that differences between children in kindergarten may be large and a huge problem for the teacher already. Second, a mismatch between a child’s potential characteristics, and the actual pedagogical, educational or didactic and instructional characteristics in kindergarten, seems to create emotional, social and cognitive problems for the pupil. This occurs with pupils who are functioning much below or above their peers, which is in line with other findings (Durkin, 1966; Jewett, Tertell, King-Taylor, Parker, Tertell & Orr, 1998; Mooij, 1992b; Skinner, Bryant, Coffman & Campbell, 1998). At this early stage, social and cognitive or other problems experienced with pupils can already be rather excessive. Third, the observation and interviewing teaches that the social and pedagogical abilities of teachers to cope with such ‘deviating’ or ‘difficult’ pupils varies greatly. Some of the teachers or teams are managing quite nicely from social, pedagogical and cognitive points of view, whereas other teachers and teams cannot come to grips with such pupils. The research presented above clarifies that it is necessary to tackle the root of the ‘mismatch’ problem, to prevent more conspicuous or disruptive behaviour in kindergarten and more serious behavioural, social, cognitive, 326 and motivational problems later on. Based on the research and theoretical considerations, five guidelines to improve education were formulated. Five guidelines towards optimum education In education, social and cognitive competencies are related closely: Without prosocial competency it is very hard to develop cognitive competency. Intraindividual social and cognitive processes are related to pupil level and small group or class and school level variables (cf. above). All system aspects of education should therefore really favour the development of all pupils, including their differences, since the beginning in kindergarten. Five guidelines to improve education may prevent the problems of marginal pupils in particular. In the following, these guidelines are briefly treated. Promote prosocial and pedagogical rules and control procedures Attention of a school team within a kindergarten or school should, first of all, be given to the social and pedagogical school climate. Socially, all persons should get along with each other in respectful and prosocial ways (Alschuler, 1980; Stephenson, Collinson & Killeavy, 1998). Pedagogically, the educational situation should promote the harmonious growth and support of every pupil on all relevant aspects, e.g. social, cognitive, emotional, creative, athletic or sensory-motor, and motivational characteristics. As shown in the intervention research above, giving pupils social and didactic responsibilities, and creating a positive and socially coherent climate in school, are possibilities to influence prosocial behaviour of every pupil within and outside school. Different kinds of whole-team programmes focus on the development of prosocial behaviour between the pupils and between the pupils and the teacher (Goleman, 1995; Grol & Zengerink, 1990). The purpose of these programmes is to develop and reinforce prosocial behaviour within the class and school, by practicing prosocial behaviour rules and games and by discussing differences from a social, an emotional, a linguistic, or a cultural perspective. More specific activities or measures may be necessary, e.g. for pupils whose competency in affective, emotional, or social respects is clearly lower, or more disturbed, than that of their classmates. In this situation, expert advice or counselling is needed. For example, within ‘nurture groups’ of about 12 young pupils (Bennathan & Boxall, 1996), concentration is focussed on intensified but temporary emotional support of pupils at risk. 327 Use an intake procedure for every pupil At the beginning of early education and of elementary and secondary education, parents and teachers should inform each other as accurately and simply as possible about relevant entry behaviours or competencies of a pupil. This collaboration between parents and school is necessary to ensure a smooth transition into kindergarten or elementary or secondary school. In educational types other than kindergarten, the intake procedure can be based partly on the final results or competence indicators of the foregoing type. Different examples of intake procedures in early childhood education exist. First, parents or caretakers and teachers can communicate about entry behaviours of a child in a structured way. A psychometrically controlled questionnaire can be used to measure cognitive, social, emotional, creative, athletic or sensory-motor, and motivational characteristics (Mooij & Smeets, 1997). A comparable procedure is given by Walker et al. (1998). Second, Tymms, Merrell and Henderson (1997) specify an individual intake procedure for four-year-olds which is based on multimedia information collected by only the teacher. The assessment is directed at the measurement of ordered language and (preliminary) reading and (preliminary) arithmetic tasks in instructional or curriculum lines. If necessary, in all procedures more diagnostic information can be gathered by using psychometrically controlled tests by either the teacher, counsellor, or a school advisory service. Combine free play and instructional lines in the curriculum Free play gives children the possibility to explore their own choices and favoured activities (Pellegrini & Boyd, 1993). Also, spontaneous play behaviour has diagnostic values for the teacher or counsellor. In addition to situations of free play, ‘instructional lines’ can support the stimulation and integration of a child in kindergarten and elementary or secondary school in more systematic ways. The concept of instructional line is used to denote a hierarchical arrangement of educational concepts and sub-concepts that correspond with specific play or curricular and instructional materials. For example, sensory motor development for 4–6 year-olds generally starts with global movement with the whole body, followed by movement with the arms and hands, and then by paying attention to writing conditions e.g., direction in moving, training of regularity in movement with hands and fingers, and motor exercises evolving into preliminary writing. Furthermore, instructional lines can be designed to have explicit pedagogical or didactic value. For example, for children developing slowly and with a relatively low initial motor competence, the materials in the line could refer to remedial motor activities. For children gifted in the motor aspect, the play and didactic materials could be 328 situated on a much higher initial motor level, requiring more self-regulation and cooperation in small groups. In addition to the cognitive-instructional flexibility in instructional lines, cooperation in small groups of pupils seems to be the main possibility to overcome problems associated with marginal pupils in kindergarten throughout elementary and secondary education (cf. Jones, Rasmussen & Moffitt, 1997; Westberg & Archambault, 1997). Use quality criteria to support each pupil from the beginning Quality indicators are necessary to monitor learning processes and their outcomes on every pupil, from the beginning in kindergarten or elementary and secondary school onwards. Though a discussion exists about the ‘pedagogical’ values of early screening or testing (Shepard & Graue, 1993), pupils at risk will profit from more clarity in kindergarten and elementary school (Mangione & Speth, 1998). Specific norms should be available regarding the development of individual pupils and the necessary characteristics of specific educational requirements (Raver & Zigler, 1997; Tymms, 1998). Plan and evaluate educational transformation at different levels The curricular play and learning processes have to be designed in such ways that their inherent social, emotional, sensory-motor, cognitive, creative, and motivational aspects, both reflect and support the competence development of the pupils actually present. Based on this gradual development of educational characteristics, the fifth guideline specifies that the educational transformation process should differentially take place at all levels e.g., the intra-individual level, pupil level, small group level, class level, school level, regional level, and national level. At each of these levels, and between these levels, more specific transformation processes and potential effects should be realised and evaluated continuously. Realisation of the guidelines The guidelines emphasise that basing education on initial competencies of the pupils actually present, and developing these competencies further in flexible and socially responsible ways, will positively influence the development of each pupil. For this reason, the guidelines reflect ‘pupil-based education’ in which all pupils can be stimulated in positive ways. Or, in other terms, pupil-based education is education to prevent the growth of motivation and achievement problems with pupils at risk in particular. Practice experiences in developing education in kindergarten and elementary and secondary school teaches that present interpretations and procedures of both teachers 329 and counsellors in the traditional, regular school system may aggravate the problems a pupil experiences (Mooij, 1999a, 1999b; Mooij et al., 1998). Therefore, prosocial processes should be developed in collaboration between the teachers and school staff, pupils, counsellors, researchers, and the parents or caretakers (cf. Cronbach, 1983; Lando & Schneider, 1997). Conclusions First of all, promotion of prosocial behaviour should take place as early as possible by supporting prosocial behaviour in different situations and ways. Pre-school promotion of social behaviour can concentrate on e.g., social, emotional, motor, linguistic and cognitive development of a child. It can be provided through infant welfare clinics, playgroups, multidisciplinary teams for pre-school children with developmental difficulties, and early language development programmes. At the beginning of kindergarten, characteristics of the pupils could be determined as a base to the designing of optimum educational conditions for every pupil. For example, in a quantitative study of 966 children, Mooij and Smeets (1997) identified indicators which can be used, either singly or in combination, to estimate developmental levels of children entering early education at the age of four. According to the five guidelines, the aim is to ensure the positive integration of every child in the various classroom settings in which he or she is growing up. Counsellors can cooperate with teachers in different ways to integrate children and to learn from these integration processes throughout education (Bradley & Jarchow, 1998). Next, distinctions can be drawn between three kinds of prevention of antisocial behaviour or, better, the early promotion of prosocial behaviour. The first kind is ‘primary prevention’ which consists of introducing social, pedagogical, didactic, curricular and organisational changes according to the five guidelines. This integral or comprehensive system prevention is necessary for the pupils at risk in particular. It requires a gradual restructuring and change of traditional education (Moreno & Torrego, 1998). If this does not occur, we will most likely keep the same old problems with antisocial behaviour, playing truant and dropping out. Furthermore, ‘secondary prevention’ means improved attention to conspicuous pupils, or pupils at risk. Finally, ‘tertiary prevention’ denotes an improved approach to dealing with actual antisocial and disruptive behaviour (cf. before; see also Van der Ploeg & Mooij, 1998). Counsellors could, and should, play major roles in all three kinds of prevention (Tatar, 1996/1997). Finally, accurate and early registration of pupils’ functioning and progress, and the use of structured play and instructional lines, asks for real educational 330 improvements and changes from the beginning of kindergarten. To realise the work to be done, teachers, researchers and counsellors could collaborate within kindergartens and primary and secondary schools. Necessary developments in educational practice can be supported also by adequate facilities related to Information and Communication Technology (ICT; cf. Smeets, Mooij, Bamps, Bartolomé, Lowyck, Redmond & Steffens, 1998; Wegerif, Mercer & Dawes, 1998). References Activiteitengroep Onderwijs (1998). Rem op geweld [Stopping Violence]. Arnhem, the Netherlands: Gemeentebestuur. Alschuler, A.S. (1980). School Discipline: A Socially Literate Solution. New York: McGrawHill. Ames, C. (1984). 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THE DEVELOPMENTAL RELATION BETWEEN AGGRESSIVE BEHAVIOUR 7 Views AND PROSOCIAL BEHAVIOUR: A 5-YEAR LONGITUDINAL STUDY
THE FEMINIZATION OF PRIMARY EDUCATION: EFFECTS OF TEACHERS’ SEX 8 Views ON PUPIL ACHIEVEMENT, ATTITUDES AND BEHAVIOUR
TEACHING AND COUNSELLING BEHAVIOUR: AN APPLIED STUDY WITH COMMUNITY 6 Views PHARMACISTS
THE DEVELOPMENT OF PROSOCIAL BEHAVIOUR IN EARLY CHILDHOOD: 4 Views CONTRIBUTIONS OF EARLY PARENTING AND SELFREGULATION
THE PUPIL AS PHILOSOPHER
AUTHENTIC LEADERS PROMOTING STORE PERFORMANCE: 10 THE MEDIATING Views ROLES OF VIRTUOUSNESS AND POTENCY
PUPIL SERVICES AND EDUCATION REFORM
BECAUSE EVERY PUPIL COUNTS: THE SUCCESS OF THE PUPIL MONITORING 9 Views SYSTEM IN THE NETHERLANDS
ASSESSMENT OF EATING BEHAVIOUR IN YOUNG WOMEN REQUESTING NUTRITIONAL 6 Views COUNSELLING AND THEIR MOTHERS
LINKS BETWEEN ADOLESCENTS’ EXPECTED PARENTAL REACTIONS AND PROSOCIAL 6 Views BEHAVIORAL TENDENCIES: THE MEDIATING ROLE OF PROSOCIAL VALUES
BOOK REVIEW: THE PUPIL SHOP
LEARNING BEHAVIOUR AND LEARNING OUTCOMES: THE ROLES FOR 10 SOCIAL Views INFLUENCE AND FIELD OF STUDY
THE CHANGING ROLES OF NGOS IN NEPAL: PROMOTING EMERGING RIGHTS-HOLDER 5 Views ORGANIZATIONS FOR INCLUSIVE AID
COUNSELLING BEHAVIOUR AND CONTENT IN A PHARMACEUTICAL CARE SERVICE 9 Views IN SWEDISH COMMUNITY PHARMACIES
THE SOCIAL VALUES OF AGGRESSIVE– PROSOCIAL YOUTH
PUPIL COLLABORATION AND TEACHER INTERVENTION IN THE LOGO ENVIRONMENT 8 Views
PUPIL-BLAHMETRY: COGNITIVE EFFORT IN SPEECH PLANNING 3 Views REFLECTED BY PUPIL DILATION
THE ELUSIVENESS OF PYGMALION AND DIFFERENCES IN TEACHER4 Views PUPIL CONTACTS
NATIONAL BUSINESS IDEOLOGY AND EMPLOYEES’ PROSOCIAL 12 VALUES
RELATIONS AMONG SOCIOCOGNITIVE ABILITIES AND PROSOCIAL 15 BEHAVIOR
IMPLEMENTING INTERNATIONAL SEXUAL COUNSELLING GUIDELINES IN HOSPITAL 6 Views CARDIAC REHABILITATION: DEVELOPMENT OF THE CHARMS INTERVENTION USING THE BEHAVIOUR CHANGE WHEEL
INFORMATION, GUIDANCE AND COUNSELLING
EDITORIAL: COUNSELLING AND HEALTH
THE TEACHING WELL: EXPERIENCE, EDUCATION, AND 17 COUNSELLING
GENDER, PRESERVICE TEACHERS AND ASSESSMENT OF PUPIL WORK
PROSOCIAL SPENDING AND SUBJECTIVE WELL-BEING: THE RECIPIENT PERSPECTIVE 9 Views
HINDU COUNSELLING IN THE NETHERLANDS
MISSION COMPLETED? CHANGING VISIBILITY OF WOMEN’S 11 COLLEGES IN Views ENGLAND AND JAPAN AND THEIR ROLES IN PROMOTING GENDER EQUALITY IN SCIENCE
ROLES FOR SCIENTIFIC SOCIETIES IN PROMOTING INTEGRITY IN 10 PUBLICATION Views ETHICS
THE EDUCATIONAL COUNSELLING OF UNEMPLOYED 11 ADULTS
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