Resource Management CPU Scheduling Memory Scheduling Storage Bandwidth Network Bandwidth
Distributed VM File System
Virtual NIC & Switch
Device Drivers VMkernel Hardware Interface
Virtual Machine Monitor Enterprise Class Virtualization Functionality
Virtualization SW Terminology
Base Functionality (e.g. scheduling)
Virtual Machine Monitor (VMM) SW component that implements virtual machine hardware abstraction Responsible for running the guest OS
Hypervisor Software responsible for hosting and managing virtual machines Run directly on the hardware Functionality varies greatly with architecture and implementation
CPU Virtualization Three components to classical virtualization techniques Many virtualization technologies focus on handling privileged instructions Privileged instruction virtualization Memory virtualization Device and I/O virtualization
De-privileging or ring compression to handle privileged instructions Memory partitioning and allocation of physical memory Routing I/O requests between virtual devices and physical hardware
Handling Privileged Instructions In traditional systems OS runs in privileged mode OS “owns” the hardware Application code has less privilege
VMM needs highest privilege level for isolation and performance Traditional VMM relies on “ring compression” or “de-privileging”
Guest OS VMM
Run privileged guest OS code at user-level Privileged instructions trap, and emulated by VMM
Virtualizing x86 Architecture De-privileging not possible with x86! Some privileged instructions have different semantics at user-level: “non-virtualizable instructions”
VMware uses direct execution and binary translation (BT) BT for handling privileged code Direct execution of user-level code for performance Any unmodified x86 OS can run in virtual machine
Protecting the VMM Need to protect VMM and ensure isolation Protect virtual machines from each other Protect VMM from virtual machines
VMware relies on segmentation hardware to protect the VMM VMM lives at top of guest address space Segment limit checks catch writes to VMM area VMM 0
Agenda CPU virtualization technology overview Virtualizing the x86 architecture
Trend No. 1: Hardware Assist CPU vendors are embracing virtualization Intel Virtualization Technology (VT-x) AMD Pacifica
These CPU technologies are a series of enhancements to aid virtualization SW Initially focused on handling non-virtualizable instructions Use a trap-and-emulate model Alternative to using binary translation
But hardware assist does not eliminate need for VMware technology
Virtual Machine Monitor (VMM)
VMM executes in root mode Allows x86 virtualization without binary translation or paravirtualization Guest state stored in Virtual Machine Control Structures (VT-x) or Virtual Machine Control Block (Pacifica)
Key feature is new CPU execution mode (root mode)
Limitations of Hardware Assist Initial VT-x/Pacifica hardware does not include all components of CPU virtualization solution VT-x requires small emulator for real mode code Memory virtualization support lacking Not in VT-x; implementation-dependent for Pacifica Memory virtualization is key to performance!
No device virtualization support Hardware Assist Privileged instructions Memory virtualization Device and I/O virtualization
Yes No No
Future of Hardware Assist CPU vendors will add more hardware capabilities in future Memory virtualization (Nested paging, EPT)
VMware software will evolve to incorporate support for these new technologies Adopt technologies as they enable new capabilities
Hardware Solution Privileged instructions
Extended Page Tables/Nested Paging
Devices and I/O
Trend No. 2: 64-bit Computing Progression of the x86 architecture 16-bit: 8086/8088 (1978) 32-bit: 80386 (1985) 64-bit: x86-64 (2003): a.k.a. AMD64, x64
x86-64 architecture brings 64-bit computing to industry-standard systems Provides compatibility mode to run 32-bit x86 applications Extensions to x86 architecture
64-bit Transition Has Already Begun Apps exhausting limits of 32-bit address space Consuming 1 bit of address space / year Databases, Java app servers, other threaded applications
Most new CPUs are 64-bit enabled AMD64, EM64T
Major OSes have been ported Windows, Linux, Solaris 10, etc. Applications are being ported Databases, app servers, development tools, games, etc.
Virtualization And x86-64 Potential questions about 64-bit transition Do my apps run in 64-bit OS? Have drivers been ported? Are the 64-bit OSes robust?
The solution: virtualization!
Applications 32bit VM
32-bit or 64-bit Host OS
Great aid for 64-bit transition Easy way to evaluate new OSes 64-bit Hardware Can run 64-bit guest OSes on 32-bit host OS on 64-bit hardware)!
Challenges of Virtualizing x86-64 Initial AMD64 architecture did not include segmentation in 64-bit mode Segmentation also missing from EM64T
How do we protect the VMM? 64-bit guest support requires additional hardware assistance Segment limit checks available in 64-bit mode on newer AMD processors VT-x can be used to protect the VMM on EM64T Requires trap-and-emulate approach instead of BT
Flexible VMM Architecture Flexible “multi-mode” VMM architecture Separate VMM per virtual machine 32-bit: BT VMM 64-bit: BT or VT/Pacifica VMM depending on hardware
Select mode that achieves best workloadspecific performance Same VMM architecture for ESX Server, GSX Server, Workstation and ACE
64-bit Guests And WS 5.5 Workstation 5.5 enables 64-bit guests Currently in beta
Simultaneously run 32-bit and 64-bit guests Runs on 32-bit and 64-bit host OSes Applications 32bit VM
32-bit or 64-bit Host OS
Requirements For 64-bit Guests Newer hardware required for 64-bit guest support AMD Opteron Rev. E or later AMD Athlon64 Rev. D or later Intel VT-enabled processor
How to determine that you have a 64-bit capable system? Workstation 5.5 will automatically check to see if your CPU meets the requirements CPU check utility also available for download on WS5.5 beta web page http://www.vmware.com/products/beta/ws/
Trend No. 3: OS Assist Three alternatives for handling non-virtualizable instructions Binary translation Hardware assist OS assist or paravirtualization
Hardware ParaAssist virtualization
Paravirtualization Paravirtualization can address same problem as hardware assist
Modify the guest OS to remove non-virtualizable instructions Export a simpler architecture to OS Cannot support unmodified OSes (e.g. Windows 2000/XP) Paravirtualization not limited to CPU virtualization Higher performance possible Relatively easy to add paravirtualization support: very difficult to add binary translation
Hardware ParaAssist virtualization
Paravirtualization Challenges XenoLinux paravirtualization approach unsuitable for enterprise use Relies on separate kernel for native and in virtual machine Guest OS and hypervisor tightly coupled Tight coupling inhibits compatibility Changes to the guest OS are invasive Inhibits maintainability and supportability Guest kernel must be recompiled when hypervisor is updated
How can we deliver paravirtualization for enterprise customers?
VMI Paravirtualization API
VMware proposal: Virtual machine Interface API VMI provides maintainability & stability API supports low-level and higher-level interfaces Allows same kernel to run natively and in a paravirtualized virtual machine: “transparent paravirtualization” Allows for replacement of hypervisors without a guest recompile Preserve key virtualization functionality: page sharing, VMotion, etc. We are gathering feedback on the API from many kernel developers and OSVs http://www.vmware.com/vmi http://www.vmware.com/standards/hypercalls.html
VMI Paravirtualization VMI approach to paravirtualization improves compatibility API need not compromise performance compared to invasive paravirtualization
VMware And Paravirtualization VMware will support paravirtualized Linux OSes Another guest type when such OS’s commercially available
Flexible architecture Use most efficient technique for the guest OS type BT, VT/Pacifica, or paravirtualization
VM Distributed VM File System
Virtual NIC & Switch
VMM32 VMM64 VMM64 Resource Management
Summary 64-bit transition happening now Virtualization can assist with transition 64-bit guests supported in WS5.5
VMware provides flexible architecture to support emerging virtualization technologies Multi-mode VMM utilizes binary translation, hardware assist and paravirtualization Select best operating mode for the workload
VMware will support paravirtualized guests as they appear in enterprise distributions VMI offers superior maintainability/flexibility Performs as well as invasive paravirtualization
PAC346 VMware and CPU Virtualization Technology Jack Lo Sr. Director, R&D
Performance of Binary Translation BT provides many performance optimization opportunities Fault elimination Avoid costs of repeated virtual machine exits Binary translator identifies faulting instructions and replaces them with special translations
Jump directly to appropriate handlers without an expensive fault Guest and VMM share an address space: reduces context switch costs
creating confusion with their marketing claims and terminology. For example, while hardware assist is a valuable technique that will mature and expand the envelope of workloads that can be virtualized, paravirtualization is not an entirely new techno
4,294 students enrolled. Created by Larry Karnis. Last updated 5/2017. English. English [Auto-generated]. Preview This Course. VMware vSphere 6 Part 1 ... Install and configure VMware's ESXi hypervisor according to best practices; Understand and conf
PRIMERGYÂ® servers and ETERNUSÂ® storage systems are certified for the latest releases of VMware ESX Server resp. vSphereÂ®, and for .... where a virtual desktop infrastructure provides better answers, enables faster reactions and increases the suppo
The VMware Partner Network is customized for organizations that sell, build, develop, ... Cost: Free | To sign up: Partner Central Â» Partner University. SALES.
Oracle Processor Core Factor Table; Last update 25th September 2013. Core factor 0.5: Intel Xeon ... Oracle EE Core Licensing â Price Performance Ratio?
Aug 10, 2016 - 8. 2016. PassMark Intel vs AMD CPU BenchmarksÐ°Ð½Ð°High End https://www.cpubenchmark.net/high_end_cpus.html. 1/12. CPU Benchmarks.
Partner Central. My VMware is a separate portal with a separate log-in. Super User Roles. Q. I'm a Partner managing my Customer's licenses, should I be.
Programming Console. CS1W-CN224: 2.0 m. CS1W-CN624: 6.0 m. Peripheral port. C200H-PRO27-E. Model. Cable length. Cable. C200H-PR027-E. 2.0 m.
virtualization expert, VMware Certification will get you there. ... requirements for Workforce Mobility. ... and administering a VMware vSphereÂ® 5 environment.
access to Partner Central and be able to apply to join the TAP. Program. For any questions contact [email protected] Please note that partners in the ...
1 Introduction to Networking 12. Networking Concepts Overview 12. Network Services in ESXi 14. VMware ESXi Dump Collector Support 14. 2 Setting Up Networking with vSphere Standard Switches 15. vSphere Standard Switches 15. Create a vSphere Standard S
Apr 27, 2017 - https://www.stanly.edu/future-students/continuing-education/technology-courses/vmware-vsphere-install-configure-manage ...... Quick question, I passed the v6 Foundations test...then had some delay in study/testing times, and eventually
Logitech Z560 4.1 speakers (with 8 speakers total plus the sub) Raidmax 420 W PSU ... After the SATA post screen, it will bring up a blue screen, mouse won't work, use arrow keys and enter key to navigate, Read the second part of manual, it will tell
storage components work for effective and efficient management of systems. Storage architects must understand VMware Infrastructure's storage components and architecture so they can best integrate applications and optimize performance. This knowledge
3.3. ESXi & Automation Application Hardware Requirements for Small Size ..... Instant deployment of new virtual machines or even aggregated pools of virtual ... situations where the manufacturer of the legacy hardware no longer exists or ...... If po
Virtualization is a trend that is not going away. From reduced operating costs to decreased downtime and increased IT productivity and efficiency, the benefits are real. Regardless of your organization's vendor of choice, New Horizon's broad-based vi
VMware Solutions for an Epic Environment. Transforming Healthcare IT with an Electronic Medical. Records Solution and VMware vCloud for Healthcare. TECHNICAL WHITE PAPER ...
Added DVS port group, viUseProxy option for vSphere, and vCloud locators. ... Companies that contributed to the OVF standard include VMware, Dell, HP, IBM, Microsoft, ..... --prop:guestinfo.cis.appliance.net.dns.servers=X.X.X.1,X.X.X.2\.
âWe believe virtualized SAP HANA with VMware's vSphere could be the key to our future, as .... 300GB single node and multiplex. â vMotion .... http://www.vmware.com/files/pdf/SAP_HANA_on_vmware_vSphere_best_practices_guide.pdf. 26 ...
Equivalent knowledge and administration experience with ESXi and vCenter Server or completion of one of the following courses is required: â¢ VMware vSphere: Install, Configure, Manage [V5] â¢ VMware vSphere: What's New [V5] â¢ VMware vSphere: Fas